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 Copper
 
 
Goats
Mineral Levels in Animal Health
Diagnostic Data, Sherpa International
Clearbrook,  BC Canada
R. Puls, 1994
   
Diet
Liver
Kidney
Serum
Spleen
Deficient
0.5-5.0
0.4-10.0
1.8-9.0
0.04-0.40
0.02-0.10
Marginal
5.0-10..0
15-25
 
0.40-0.80
1.0-2.0
Adequate
10-23
25.0-150
3.0-6.0
0.70-1.20
3.0
High
 
180-250
12-635
0.90-1.80
40-145
Toxic
 
230-2054
12-635
1.20-7.50
40-145
ppm
ppm
ppm wet wt
 
ppm wet wt

 
 
Diet
Fetal Liver
Brain
Milk
Rib
Pancreas
Hair
Deficient
1.6-20.0
<2.0
0.006-0.100
 
 
<3.0
Adequate
30-114
3.0-4.0
0.1-0.9
6-13
6-11
5-8
.
ppm wet wt
 
mg/L
 
ppm dry wt
ppm dry wt

 
TISSUE LEVELS:
Serum Cu is low in newborn for several days.
Serum Cu is elevated during late pregnancy and during pregnancy toxemia.

Kidney Cu may be elevated by infection, trauma or toxicity

 
DEFICIENCY SIGNS:
Enzootic ataxia (swayback) in juvenile - padding hind legs followed by posterior weakness, incoordination and flaccid paralysis progressing to forelimbs resulting in prostration.
Poor growth rate or sudden death.

 
DEFICIENCY PREVENTION:
Cu oxide needles administered orally in early pregnancy +2g to kids at 5 weeks of age.
 
TOXICITY:
Goat are 3 times more resisitant to toxicity than sheep.
Angora goats may be more susceptible to toxicity than other breeds (unconfirmed).

Acute LD50 approximately 60mg.kg body weight.

10mg Cu as sulphate/kg body weight/day for 30-100 days is lethal.

Toxicity is enhanced by intramuscular Se supplementation and apparently Monesin treatment.

25mf Cu/kg body wt/day for 19 weeks is toxic.

 
TOXICITY SIGNS:
Hemolytic crisis - dullness, depression, abomasal pain, tremors, hemoglobinuria, juandice, brown muchus membrains, diarrhea, loss of appetite, arching of back and grining of teeth.
 
INTERACTION:
High dietary selenium enhances Cu deficiency.
Intramuscular selenium supplementation enhances Cu storge in liver.

Serum Na and K increase Ca decreses during toxicity hemolytic crisis.

 
SOIL/PLANT Cu INTERRELATIONSHIPS:
Extractable soil Cu needs to be >0.4mg.kg for cereal crops.
However plant Cu uptake can be affected by plant species or cultivar, precipitation, and soil type and is not highly correlated with soil Cu level.

Forages grown on saline soils contain lower levels of Cu.

Legume feeds tend to have higher levels of Cu than corn silage or grass hay.

Excessive precipitation reduces plant Cu uptake.

Pasture treatment with 20 kg Cu sulphate/hectare may help prevnet Cu deficienty.

Liming pasture high in Mo aggreavates Cu deficiency.

Phosphate fertilizer high in S should be avoided.


Mineral Levels in Animal Health
Diagnostic Data, Sherpa International
Clearbrook,  BC Canada
R. Puls, 1994

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